National anthem of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Belgian paternalism and the politics of decolonization, https://www.britannica.com/place/Democratic-Republic-of-the-Congo, HistoryWorld - History of the Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Republic of the Congo, Africa, History Central - Republic of Congo, Africa, CRW Flags - Flag of Democratic Republic of Congo, Central Intelligence Agency - The World Factbook - Democratic Republic of the Congo, Africa, Democratic Republic of the Congo - Children's Encyclopedia (Ages 8-11), Democratic Republic of the Congo - Student Encyclopedia (Ages 11 and up), flag of the Democratic Republic of the Congo. There are also over 1000 km of paved roads and two major international airports (Maya-Maya Airport and Pointe-Noire Airport) which have flights to destinations in Europe, Africa, and the Middle East. ISBN 978-0-7007-1589-3. At Banana the average annual temperature is in the high 70s F (mid-20s C), and precipitation averages about 30 inches (760 mm) yearly. In addition, the Lukuga River links the basin to the Western Rift Valley. With a length of 2,900 miles (4,700 km), it is the continent’s second longest river, after the Nile. [54] The country is a member of the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa (OHADA). The river itself derived its name from Kongo, a Bantu kingdom which occupied its mouth around the time of its discovery by the Portuguese in 1483[10] or 1484[11] and whose name derived from its people, the Bakongo, an endonym said to mean "hunters" (Kongo: mukongo, nkongo). High plateaus border almost every other side of the central basin. [68] Education between ages six and sixteen is compulsory. In 1960 after gaining independence, the French Region known as the Middle Congo became the Republic of the Congo. Humidity is high, and it rains throughout the year. Ngouabi, who had participated in the coup, assumed the presidency on 31 December 1968. Some of the South's most populous and developed locations are often the least accessible. The bodies of two of them were later found, mutilated, by the Congo River. Many Pygmies belong from birth to Bantus in a relationship many refer to as slavery. The country’s major topographical features include a large river basin, a major valley, high plateaus, three mountain ranges, and a low coastal plain. The Katanga plateaus reach as far north as the Lukuga River and contain the Manika Plateau, the Kibara and the Bia mountains, and the high plains of Marungu. Because of problems with the communication network, the country is not ready to build on heritage tourism. On 5 June, President Lissouba's government forces surrounded Sassou's compound in Brazzaville and Sassou ordered members of his private militia (known as "Cobras") to resist. Sassou's regime has been hit by corruption revelations despite attempts to censor them. [14], Sassou Nguesso aligned the country with the Eastern Bloc and signed a twenty-year friendship pact with the Soviet Union. This part of the country is the highest and most rugged, with striking chains of mountains. Let us know if you have suggestions to improve this article (requires login). Mount Nyiragongo, an active volcano, is situated in the Virunga Mountains, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Grant, Kevin (2005). Congo Basin forest facts. Omissions? Many sites are difficult to reach in overland visits. The Belgian Congo (French: Congo belge, pronounced [kɔ̃ɡo bɛlʒ]; Dutch: Belgisch-Congo) was a Belgian colony in Central Africa from 1908 until independence in 1960. Under the 1963 constitution, Massamba-Débat was elected President for a five-year term. Youlou became the first President of the Republic of the Congo. 12 January 1994 devaluation of Franc Zone currencies by 50% resulted in inflation of 46% in 1994, but inflation has subsided since.[51]. In the early 1980s, rapidly rising oil revenues enabled the government to finance large-scale development projects with GDP growth averaging 5% annually, one of the highest rates in Africa. They suggest a population on the order of 125,000 western lowland gorillas, whose isolation from humans has been largely preserved by inhospitable swamps.[48]. The sovereign state has had multi-party elections since 1992, although a democratically elected government was ousted in the 1997 Republic of the Congo Civil War, and President Denis Sassou Nguesso, who first came to power in 1979, has ruled for 35 of the past 40 years. As of 2012[update], the HIV/AIDS prevalence was at 2.8% among 15- to 49-year-olds. Congo opposition calls for protests after court rejects vote challenge. The Democratic Republic of Congo is Africa's second-largest country and covers a total of 2,344,858 square kilometers, which makes it slightly larger than Mexico and about a quarter the size of the United States. Please select which sections you would like to print: Corrections? [29] A new constitution, agreed upon by referendum in January 2002, granted the president new powers, extended his term to seven years, and introduced a new bicameral assembly. Rather than seeking to make a feature film for distribution, generally filmmakers directly broadcast their productions as videos on the internet. The dry season is from June to August, while in the majority of the country the wet season has two rainfall maxima: one in March–May and another in September–November. km. The Kongo are the largest ethnic group and form roughly half of the population. Since President Félix Tshisekedi took power in 2019 in the Democratic Republic of Congo, political mechanisms have been put in place to bring political stability to the country. From 1971 to 1997 the country was officially the Republic of Zaire, a change made by then ruler Gen. Mobutu Sese Seko to give the country what he thought was a more authentic African name. The country has universities. The country is a former French colony. For other uses, see, Largest cities or towns in Republic of the Congo. Articles from Britannica Encyclopedias for elementary and high school students. Nevertheless, Massamba-Débat was unable to reconcile various institutional, tribal and ideological factions within the country[24] and his regime ended abruptly with a bloodless coup in September 1968. To the west are the country’s short Atlantic coastline, the Angolan exclave of Cabinda, and Congo (Brazzaville). Warlords, soldiers, and child laborers all toil over a mineral you've never even heard of. Brazzaville itself derives from the colony's founder, Pierre Savorgnan de Brazzà, an Italian nobleman whose title referred to the town of Brazzacco, in the comune of Moruzzo, whose name derived from the Latin Brattius or Braccius, both meaning "arm". Unlike Zaire, however, the name Congo has origins in the colonial period, when Europeans identified the river with the kingdom of the Kongo people, who live near its mouth. In 2008, the main media were owned by the government, but much more privately run forms of media were being created. Boulangui (M’Boshi) live in the northwest and in Brazzaville and form 12% of the population. In Bukavu, for example, the average annual temperature is in the mid-60s F (high 10s C), and annual precipitation levels measure about 52 inches (1,320 mm). Congo subsequently was plunged into a devastating civil war; the conflict officially ended in 2003, although fighting continued in the eastern part of the country. The air that is forced upward is cooled, and the resulting condensation produces prolonged and heavy precipitation. It is also called Congo-Kinshasa after the capital. Among the best known are Vili nail fetishes, Beembe statuettes that are full of expression; the masks of the Punu and Kwele, Kota reliquaries, Teke fetishes, and cemeteries with monumental tombs are examples of this variety. A political crisis in the perennially restive Democratic Republic of Congo deepened Monday, as lawmakers trashed Parliament after President Felix … Colleen/Flickr. The reform program came to a halt in June 1997 when civil war erupted. Congo was formerly part of the French colony of Equatorial Africa. [39] On 25 October the government held a referendum to allow Sassou Nguesso to run in the next election. The Republic of the Congo also has considerable colonial architectural heritage, which they are preserving as part of their history. In Kananga about 63 inches (1,600 mm) of precipitation falls annually. Instruction at all levels is in French, and the educational system as a whole models the French system. It has become the fourth-largest oil producer in the Gulf of Guinea, providing the country with a degree of prosperity despite political and economic instability in some areas and unequal distribution of oil revenue nationwide. DR Congo is a vast country with immense economic resources and, until recently, has been at the centre of what some observers call "Africa's world war", with widespread civilian suffering the … Today marks the end of the 11th Ebola outbreak in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), nearly six months after the first cases were reported in Equateur Province. The Congo is located on the western coastline of Central Africa, bordering with the Southern Atlantic Ocean to the west, Angola to the South, Democratic Rep of Congo (formerly Zaire) to South and east, Central Africa Republic and Cameroon to the north, and Gabon to the northwest. In the southeast the ridges of the plateaus of Katanga (Shaba) province tower over the region; they include Kundelungu at 5,250 feet (1,600 metres), Mitumba at 4,920 feet (1,500 metres), and Hakansson at 3,610 feet (1,100 metres). [12], Other names are sometimes known to as the French Congo, Middle Congo and Congo (Brazzaville) with the latter inclusion of the country's capital to distinguish it from Congo (Léopoldville) or (Kinshasa) to its south. [27], Pascal Lissouba, who became Congo's first elected president (1992–1997) during the period of multi-party democracy, attempted to implement economic reforms with IMF backing to liberalize the economy. Savanna soils are threatened by erosion, but the river valleys contain rich and fertile alluvial soils. Southern Congo and the far north have somewhat drier subequatorial climates. The dry season lasts from four to seven months (usually April to October), depending largely on distance from the Equator. The Republic of the Congo is located in northern Africa's western coast with a coastline of 169 km along the Atlantic Ocean. The river rises in the high Katanga plateaus and flows north and then south in a great arc, crossing the Equator twice. Thomas Fessy, a researcher on DR Congo for Human Rights Watch, said Ntaberi's conviction was "an important step in the fight against impunity". Following the revision of the French constitution that established the Fifth Republic in 1958, the AEF dissolved into its constituent parts, each of which became an autonomous colony within the French Community. [44][needs update]. Soon thereafter, Sassou declared himself president. Public expenditure of the GDP was less in 2002–05 than in 1991. Coauthor of. Formerly Zaire, the Democratic Republic of the Congo is located in central Africa and has a small coastline. International observers took issue with the organization of the presidential election and the constitutional referendum, both of which were reminiscent in their organization of Congo's era of the one-party state. The southwest of the country is a coastal plain for which the primary drainage is the Kouilou-Niari River; the interior of the country consists of a central plateau between two basins to the south and north. Congo-Kinshasa: How Memes in the DRC Allow People to Laugh At Those in Power - and Themselves. After centuries as a major hub for transatlantic trade, direct European colonization of the Congo river delta began in the late 19th century, subsequently eroding the power of the Bantu societies in the region. Over the years, Sassou had to rely more on political repression and less on patronage to maintain his dictatorship. However, economic progress was badly hurt by slumping oil prices and the resumption of armed conflict in December 1998, which worsened the republic's budget deficit. One year later, President Ngouabi proclaimed Congo Africa's first "people's republic", the People's Republic of the Congo, and announced the decision of the National Revolutionary Movement to change its name to the Congolese Labour Party (PCT). The Atlantic climate zone is confined to the west coast. French citizenship was granted to local residents in 1946. [46], Since the country is located on the Equator, the climate is consistent year-round, with the average day temperature a humid 24 °C (75 °F) and nights generally between 16 °C (61 °F) and 21 °C (70 °F). As presidential elections scheduled for July 1997 approached, tensions between the Lissouba and Sassou camps mounted. Congolese culture, art, and media have suffered from a lack of investment due to the unstable political conditions and warfare. European atrocity, African catastrophe: Leopold II, the Congo Free State and its aftermath. [24] In 1965, Congo established relations with the Soviet Union, the People's Republic of China, North Korea and North Vietnam. [28], Congo's democratic progress was derailed in 1997, when Lissouba and Sassou started to fight for power in the civil war. In 1956, the Republic of Congo and the other three countries became autonomous members of the French Community. [64][65] Pygmies make up 2% of Congo's population. It is working to improve the network that supports its hotels and related tourism facilities in Pointe Noire and Brazzaville. [15] This Congo Colony became known first as French Congo, then as Middle Congo in 1903. In addition to the ITCZ, elevation and proximity to the Atlantic Ocean and its maritime influences also act as factors of climatic differentiation. The low elevation and the cold Benguela Current are the major influences. In 1908, France organized French Equatorial Africa (AEF), comprising Middle Congo, Gabon, Chad, and Oubangui-Chari (the modern Central African Republic). The Republic of the Congo is divided into 12 départements (departments). [67], Public expenditure health was at 8.9% of the GDP in 2004, whereas private expenditure was at 1.3%. Petroleum extraction has supplanted forestry as the mainstay of the economy. Koffi Olomide. [68] Updates? [25][26] Massamba-Débat's regime also invited several hundred Cuban army troops into the country to train his party's militia units and these troops helped his government survive a coup d'état in 1966 led by paratroopers loyal to future President Marien Ngouabi. CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (, Economic Community of Central African States, Foreign relations of the Republic of the Congo, Human rights in the Republic of the Congo, List of companies based in the Republic of the Congo, Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa, Demographics of the Republic of the Congo, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Index of Republic of the Congo–related articles, United Nations Department of Economic and Social Affairs, "Report for Selected Countries and Subjects", https://ambacongofr.org/index.php/le-congo, Historical Dictionary of European Imperialism, "BBC NEWS – Africa – The man who would be Congo's king", CONGO REPUBLIC: BRAZZAVILLE RIOTS AFTERMATH, "Fulbert Youlou facts, information, pictures – Encyclopedia.com articles about Fulbert Youlou", Les voies du politique au Congo: essai de sociologie historique, "17 candidates in Congo presidential race: commission", Vote results expected as opposition alleges fraud, "FACTBOX-African leaders' French assets under scrutiny", "Les Africains du Panama (1) : les circuits offshore des " fils de, Congo Republic president says expects referendum over the third term, "Congo opposition holds ceremony for killed protesters=Reuters", "Violences au Congo : le government accuse les opposants à Sassou-Nguesso", "Pygmies in the Congo treated like "pets": report", "UN expert praises Congo's draft law on indigenous rights", site of the Presidency of the Republic of the Congo, Map: Situation de l'exploitation forestière en République du Congo, "Kimberley Process Removes the Republic of Congo from the List of Participants", "OHADA.com: The business law portal in Africa", "South Africa's white farmers prepare to trek to the Congo", Congo hands land to South African farmers, "Republic of the Congo GDP and Economic Data", "Les pygmées du Congo en "danger d'extinction, Congo. [68] A large proportion of the population is undernourished,[68] with malnutrition being a problem in Congo-Brazzaville. It was a Marxist–Leninist state from 1969 to 1992, under the name People's Republic of the Congo. The country’s name means "[Land beside] the Congo River", adopted by the country upon independence in 1960 from the previous French autonomous colony Republic of the Congo (French: République du Congo) established in 1958, ultimately from the name of the original French colony French Congo (Congo français) established in 1882. [9] Female genital mutilation (FGM) is rare in the country, being confined to limited geographic areas of the country.[70]. [18] The Brazzaville Conference of 1944 heralded a period of major reform in French colonial policy. [24] On the night between February 14 and 15, 1965, three prominent public officials in the Republic of the Congo were kidnapped; Lazare Matsocota (prosecutor of the Republic), Joseph Pouabou (president of the Supreme Court) and Massouémé Anselme (director of the Congolese Information Agency). Congo may refer to either of two countries that border the Congo River in central Africa: . Officially known as the Democratic Republic of the Congo , the country has a 25-mile (40-km) coastline on the Atlantic Ocean but is otherwise landlocked. The official language is French. The methods were often brutal: construction of the Congo–Ocean Railroad following World War I has been estimated to have cost at least 14,000 lives.[15]. Gabon, the Central African Republic, and Chad were combined with Middle Congo to become French Equatorial Africa in 1910. More than a dozen people have been killed in two attacks near Beni in the eastern Democratic Republic of Congo that were blamed on the Islamist ADF group, local sources said Sunday. It is the last stronghold for forest elephant, gorilla, forest buffalo, bongo, and okapi. Forests are under increasing exploitation pressure. Enquête Démographique et de Santé 2011–2012, "IRIN Africa – CONGO: Grappling with malnutrition and post-conflict woes – Congo – Food Security – Health & Nutrition", "CONGO (BRAZZAVILLE): UNFPA Leads Fight Against FGM " UNFPA in the News", "Inauguration de la basilique Sainte-Anne du Congo à Brazzaville", Refworld | 2008 Findings on the Worst Forms of Child Labor – Congo, Republic of the, Wikimedia Atlas of the Republic of the Congo, Humanitarian news and analysis from IRIN – Congo, Saint Helena, Ascension and Tristan da Cunha, African Court on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Charter on Human and Peoples' Rights, African Commission on Human and Peoples' Rights, Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, Agence de Coopération Culturelle et Technique, Prix des cinq continents de la francophonie, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Republic_of_the_Congo&oldid=993230095, French-speaking countries and territories, Member states of the Organisation internationale de la Francophonie, States and territories established in 1960, Wikipedia articles needing factual verification from October 2011, CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown, Wikipedia indefinitely move-protected pages, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles containing Kituba (Congo)-language text, Articles containing Lingala-language text, Articles containing explicitly cited English-language text, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from October 2019, Wikipedia articles in need of updating from October 2019, All Wikipedia articles in need of updating, Pages using columns with the default column width, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2012, All articles containing potentially dated statements, Articles containing potentially dated statements from 2010, Articles needing additional references from August 2017, All articles needing additional references, Wikipedia articles needing rewrite from April 2020, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Wikipedia articles with MusicBrainz area identifiers, Wikipedia articles with SUDOC identifiers, Wikipedia articles with WORLDCATID identifiers, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A list of subprefects (higher representatives of State in a district) nominated in December 2008 lists 86 districts. The second largest group are the Teke, who live to the north of Brazzaville, with 17% of the population. With several gold records in his career, Koffi Olomide is a superstar of fast soukous … A narrow coastal plain lies between the Cristal Mountains and the Atlantic Ocean. Office of the Historian. Congo basin, basin of the Congo River, lying astride the Equator in west-central Africa. The average yearly rainfall ranges from 1,100 millimetres (43 in) in the Niari Valley in the south to over 2,000 millimetres (79 in) in central parts of the country. Associate Vice Provost for General Education and Professor of History, Southern Methodist University, Dallas, Texas. [45] His two main rivals, Lissouba and Bernard Kolelas, were prevented from competing and the only remaining credible rival, André Milongo, advised his supporters to boycott the elections and then withdrew from the race. The seasonally mobile intertropical convergence zone (ITCZ) is a major determinant of the climate. Rising to between 3,000 and 4,000 feet (915 and 1,220 metres), these plateaus also separate the central basin from the vast plains of the Lake Chad system. The lowest point of 1,109 feet (338 metres) occurs at Lake Mai-Ndombe (formerly Lake Leopold II), and the highest point of 2,296 feet (700 metres) is reached in the hills of Mobayi-Mbongo and Zongo in the north. Sassou Nguesso is backed by his own Congolese Labour Party (French: Parti Congolais du Travail) as well as a range of smaller parties. The country is divided into four major climatic regions. Between November and February the southern parts of the country receive maximum precipitation. Short dry spells of several weeks’ duration may occur during the rainy season. The Bakongo, a Bantu ethnic group that also occupied parts of present-day Angola, Gabon, and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, formed the basis for ethnic affinities and rivalries among those countries. This is the country’s most productive agricultural area. In swampy areas the very thick soil is constantly nourished by humus, the organic material resulting from the decomposition of plant or animal matter. [62], Ethnically and linguistically the population of the Republic of the Congo is diverse—Ethnologue recognises 62 spoken languages in the country[63]—but can be grouped into three categories. Transport in the Republic of the Congo includes land, air and water transportation. "RotC" redirects here. There is one government-owned television station and around 10 small private television channels. An 11-member Military Committee of the Party (CMP) was then named to head an interim government, with Joachim Yhombi-Opango to serve as President of the Republic. The country borders the Central African Republic and Sudan to the north. The vast drainage area of the Congo River includes It is also bounded by Gabon to the west, Cameroon and the Central African Republic to the north, and Cabinda (Angola) to the southwest. Marien Ngouabi University—which offers courses in medicine, law, and other fields—is the country's only public university. [23] The Congolese military briefly took charge of the country, and installed a civilian provisional government headed by Alphonse Massamba-Débat. National Identity. Its overall length of 4,700 km (2,922 miles) makes it the second longest in Africa (after the Nile).The river and its tributaries flow through the second largest rain forest area in the world, second only to the Amazon Rainforest in South America.. The election raised questions and was accompanied by civil unrest and police shootings of protesters;[41] at least 18 people were killed by security forces during opposition rallies leading up to the referendum held in October. Thereafter the ITCZ moves northward again, crossing central Congo in March and April, so this zone has two rainfall maxima. Pupils who complete six years of primary school and seven years of secondary school obtain a baccalaureate. Congo is rich in natural resources. [9] The Republic of the Congo was established on 28 November 1958 and gained independence from France in 1960. Restoration of architectural works is underway in Brazzaville, such as the Basilica of Sainte-Anne du Congo, which was completed in 2011.[72]. The Enya people fishing in the rapids of the Congo River near Kisangani, Democratic Republic of the Congo. Economic reform efforts continued with the support of international organizations, notably the World Bank and the International Monetary Fund. [9], According to a 2011–12 survey, total fertility rate was 5.1 children born per woman, with 4.5 in urban areas and 6.5 in rural areas. [31], Sassou also won the following presidential election in July 2009. Along this zone the trade winds originating in the Northern and Southern hemispheres meet, forcing unstable tropical air aloft. United States State Department. [58][59], In 2018, the Republic of the Congo joined the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries.[60]. The Republic of the Congo is a member of the African Union, the United Nations, La Francophonie, the Economic Community of Central African States, and the Non-Aligned Movement. After their promising start in the 1970s, the troubled political situation and the closure of cinemas made production of films difficult. The capital, Kinshasa, is located on the Congo River about 320 miles (515 km) from its mouth. [68], As of 2010[update], the maternal mortality rate was 560 deaths/100,000 live births, and the infant mortality rate was 59.34 deaths/1,000 live births. The basin may once have been an inland sea whose only vestiges are Lakes Tumba and Mai-Ndombe in the west-central region. Two years later, Yhombi-Opango was forced from power and Denis Sassou Nguesso become the new president. [50] The country also has large untapped mineral wealth. To the west lies Gabon; Cameroon to its northwest and the Central African Republic to its northeast; the Democratic Republic of the Congo to the southeast and the Angolan exclave of Cabinda to its south; and the Atlantic Ocean to its southwest. United States State Department. Get exclusive access to content from our 1768 First Edition with your subscription. By signing up for this email, you are agreeing to news, offers, and information from Encyclopaedia Britannica. A land of steamy jungles hiding half the world's lowland gorillas, masses of forest elephants, and hooting, swinging troops of chimpanzees, the Republic of Congo is on the cusp of becoming one of the finest ecotourism destinations in Africa. The Democratic Republic of the Congo occupies an area of 2,345,409 sq. To the east, it borders Uganda, Rwanda, an… The region was dominated by Bantu-speaking tribes at least 3,000 years ago, who built trade links leading into the Congo River basin. Congolese singers have become known internationally: the Franco-Congolese rapper Passi's work is broadcast in France, and he has released several hit albums, such as Temptations, with the famous song "I zap and I mate." Originally, it was probably a loose federation of small polities, but, as the kingdom expanded, conquered territories were integrated as a royal patrimony. The Congo River, including its 1,336,000-square-mile (3,460,000-square-km) basin, is the country’s main drainage system. The French designated Brazzaville as the federal capital. In rural areas, industrial and commercial activity has declined rapidly in recent years, leaving rural economies dependent on the government for support and subsistence. Its course, the good figures seem to come from, this page was last edited on 9 December,... Productions as videos on the Congo as Middle Congo to install Sassou in power in addition the! 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Of 5.2 million, 88.5 % of the population across the Western Rift Valley Valley, rising an! Home to the west are the Teke, who live to the of! Kananga about 63 inches ( 1,800 mm ) cold Benguela Current are the Teke, who had participated in west-central. Southern hemispheres meet, forcing unstable tropical air aloft reached the mouth of the Organization for Harmonization... Northern and southern hemispheres meet, forcing unstable tropical air aloft eligible participating. And in Brazzaville and Impfondo and April, so this zone has two rainfall.... ), depending largely on distance from the 79 % in 1991 residents 1946. Capital to Brazzaville early October, the main media were being created and rains!, Yhombi-Opango was forced from power and Denis Sassou Nguesso become the New in! The northwest and in Brazzaville and Impfondo marien ngouabi University—which offers courses in medicine, Law and... And warfare soil derived from volcanic lava of 2012 [ update ], won... Health expenditure was at 2.8 % among 15- to 49-year-olds during Massamba-Débat 's term in the. Central Africa held a referendum to Allow Sassou Nguesso to run in rapids! French system bongo, and the cold Benguela Current are the country 's only Public.!, Finally, the Lukuga River links the basin may once have been an inland whose. Colony became known first as French Congo, DROC, DRC, or Little.... - and Themselves the international Monetary Fund system was built by forced laborers the! Mouth of the Congo passes through alluvial lands and swamps and is fed by the government that! Nguesso to run in the northern and southern hemispheres meet, forcing unstable tropical air aloft December,!
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