During his first year at Leipzig he completed a cycle for the liturgical year consisting of sixty cantatas. Oratorios relied on all the musical styles popular in Italy at the time, but as the form spread to France and composers like Marc-Antoine Charpentier (1643–1704) began to write them, they used styles developed from French opera as well. They adopt as their subjects incidents from the Old Testament and the books of the Apocrypha, which their librettists gave a theatrical cast that was often influenced by their understanding of Greek drama. This is an older video, so that is why the quality is so low. Within the “Cite this article” tool, pick a style to see how all available information looks when formatted according to that style. In the earliest Leipzig works he relied upon texts of previously developed cycles that included a large amount of sacred poetry. Few composers have made such dramatic breaks from the status quo in classical music as Igor Stravinsky did in the twentieth century. Retrieved October 16, 2020 from Encyclopedia.com: https://www.encyclopedia.com/humanities/culture-magazines/oratorio-and-cantata. . Learning Objectives. An oratorio is dramatic like an opera, and the form developed at nearly the same time as opera. The length and elaborate orchestral, solo and choral music were just as appropriate for a concert hall, so oratorios quickly filled secular as well as religious venues with Latin -- and even English -- texts set to music that contained anywhere from 30 to more than 50 movements and ran from one and a half to two hours or more. (October 16, 2020). Cl…, Weill, Kurt ." Denis Arnold, The Oratorio in Venice (London: Royal Musical Association, 1986). Although the Messiah is the most widely known of these works, it was also the most atypical of Handel's oratorio compositions because it relies on a libretto that is not dramatic. Language -- Oratorio English or German while a cantata is a German biblical text. The cantata is the shorter of the two and was first a secular work, then largely sacred song and music, and eventually a form that lent itself easily to either interpretation. Cantatas are like oratorio, but with far fewer voices. Handel virtually invented the modern oratorio and is the greatest exponent. Cantatas also became very popular in German Protestant regions as church music, particularly within the Lutheran Church. Bach's cantatas used both sacred and secular texts, although far fewer of his secular cantatas have survived than his sacred ones. The great German composer wrote cantatas throughout his entire life in every court and church position in which he served. A cantata also resembled an opera in that it combined arias with sections of recitative, and might in fact seem rather like a scene from an opera that simply stood on its own. The cantata was also developed in Rome and spread from there to the rest of Europe. "Oratorio and Cantata The demand for cantatas from composers, many of whom served as church organists, was particularly great during the years of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, and enormous numbers of cantatas were written at this time. Gluck, Christoph Willibald Von (1714–1787) These works, too, often conclude with a chorale or hymn sung by the entire choir. ORATORIO It was a common requirement of these positions that composers like Telemann regularly compose a new cycle of cantatas for the church year, which were then revived and performed at later dates. Then, copy and paste the text into your bibliography or works cited list. References might be made to the chorale throughout the cantata, and the chorus sang it at the conclusion in its traditional four-part harmony. © 2019 Encyclopedia.com | All rights reserved. But in Hamburg, where the composer spent the years between 1721 and his death in 1767, he was expected to provide two cantatas for each Sunday as well as a concluding chorus or aria for the service. 5. The cantata addresses a religious topic, but it is not narrative. While he did not outdo Telemann in quantity, the cantatas of Johann Sebastian Bach rank among the most widely revered composition of the Baroque period.
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